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Event Management

Event management includes the detection, analysis, and resolution of events that could impact network operations. It involves monitoring network systems to identify abnormalities, assessing the potential impact of these events, and taking appropriate action to prevent or mitigate any adverse effects on the network.

Activities Typically Involve

Event Detection

Automated detection of an event through monitoring tools.

Event Notification

Communication of the event to network operations.

Event Filtering

• Assessing the event to determine its significance.
• Deciding if action is needed.

Event Categorization and Prioritization

• Classifying the event according to its type.
• Prioritizing the event for handling.

Event Analysis

• Understanding the cause of the event.
• Assessing the impact of the event.

Response Selection

• Determining the appropriate response to the event.
• Deciding on escalation or resolution steps.

Event Recording

• Logging events for audit purposes.
• Tracking events for ongoing analysis.
• Recording events for reporting purposes.

Event Closure

• Concluding the event lifecycle.
• Marking the event as resolved or irrelevant.

Incident Management

Incident management refers to the process of identifying, responding to, resolving, and learning from incidents or disruptions that occur within a network that impacts performance. It involves a structured approach to minimize the impact of incidents, restore normal network operations promptly, and prevent future occurrences. 

Activities Typically Involve

Incident identification

Incident Logging, Categorization, and Prioritization

Incident Response & Escalation

Incident Investigation & Diagnosis

Incident Resolution & Recovery

Incident Communication & Reporting

Network Management

Network management includes the administration and maintenance of the network’s hardware and software. It involves monitoring network devices, managing network performance, and troubleshooting network issues. This includes network traffic analysis, configuration management, and network device management.

A multifaceted process that covers the entire spectrum of activities required to manage a network effectively. It emphasizes operational efficiency, service quality, security, and continuous improvement, all while balancing cost and compliance requirements.

Activities Typically Involve

Planning and Deployment

This involves the strategic planning of network infrastructure, including the design and deployment of new network elements. It encompasses capacity planning, technology selection, and the integration of new systems into existing infrastructure.

Operation and Maintenance

This core area covers the day-to-day operations of the network. It includes routine maintenance, monitoring network performance, and ensuring the reliability and availability of network services. This phase also involves troubleshooting and resolving network issues as they arise.


Continuously improving network performance and efficiency is a key aspect. This involves analyzing network data to identify patterns or areas for improvement, optimizing resource allocation, and updating network configurations for better performance.

Quality and SLA Management

Ensuring that the network meets established quality standards and Service Level Agreements (SLAs) is critical. This includes monitoring network performance indicators, managing network-related customer service issues, and implementing quality improvement measures.

Security Management

Protecting the network from internal and external threats is a major concern. This encompasses implementing security policies, monitoring for security breaches, and taking proactive steps to mitigate potential security risks.

Change Management

Handling changes in the network, whether due to technological upgrades, expansion, or reconfiguration, is an integral part. This ensures that changes are made smoothly, with minimal impact on network performance and customer service.

Cost Management

Efficiently managing the costs associated with network operations, including capital expenditure (CapEx) for new infrastructure and operational expenditure (OpEx) for running the network, is essential for the economic sustainability of network operations.

Compliance and Standards Adherence

Adhering to regulatory requirements and industry standards is crucial. This involves ensuring compliance with legal regulations, industry standards, and best practices.

Network Performance Management

Network Performance Management involves the continuous monitoring and management of the network’s performance to ensure that it consistently meets the required standards. This includes the identification and resolution of performance issues, as well as the implementation of strategies for performance optimization and enhancement.

Network Performance Management is essential for maintaining high-quality network service, ensuring user satisfaction, and supporting the efficient operation of network-dependent applications and services.

Activities Typically Involve

Performance Monitoring

The continuous observation of the network to track its performance in real-time. This includes monitoring bandwidth usage, throughput, latency, error rates, and other key performance indicators (KPIs).

Data Analysis

Collecting and analyzing performance data to identify trends, patterns, and anomalies. This analysis helps in understanding how different factors affect network performance and in identifying potential issues before they impact users.

Bottleneck Identification

Identifying areas in the network where performance is degraded, commonly known as bottlenecks. This involves analyzing traffic flows, utilization levels, and equipment performance to pinpoint specific segments that are underperforming.

Quality of Service (QoS) Management

Implementing and managing QoS policies to prioritize network traffic. This ensures that critical services receive the necessary bandwidth and resources, especially important in networks with diverse and competing traffic types.

Capacity Planning

Assessing current network performance and predicting future network needs. This involves planning for network expansions or upgrades to accommodate increasing traffic volumes or to deploy new services.

Fault Management Integration

Integrating performance management with fault management to quickly identify and resolve network issues. Performance degradation often precedes network failures, so this integration is key in proactive network maintenance.

Configuration Optimization

Adjusting network configurations to optimize performance. This may involve re-routing traffic, tweaking server or router settings, or upgrading firmware and software for better efficiency.

Reporting and Visualization

Creating detailed reports and visualizations of network performance. This helps in communicating the network's state to stakeholders and in making informed decisions about network management.

Compliance and Standards Adherence

Ensuring that network performance aligns with industry standards, regulatory requirements, and service level agreements (SLAs).

Network Change Management

Working with Valo’s operations team, or integrator, or Virtual Network Operator or other 3rd party, the change management involves planning, implementing, and tracking changes to the network infrastructure, electronics, or services in a controlled and systematic manner. This ensures that changes are properly evaluated, tested, and documented to minimize the risk of disruptions or misconfigurations. Change management processes help maintain network stability and integrity during updates, upgrades, or configuration modifications.

Network Change Management is essential for ensuring that the changes in the network are efficiently executed, minimizing service disruptions, and aligning with the overall strategic objectives of the network operator.

Activities Typically Involve

Change Initiation and Planning

Identifying the need for change in network operations, whether it's network upgrades, new service rollouts, or process improvements. This involves defining objectives, scope, and expected outcomes of the change.

Impact Assessment

Evaluating the potential impact of the proposed change on existing network services, operations, and customers. This includes assessing risks, resource requirements, and potential disruptions.

Stakeholder Engagement

Involving relevant stakeholders, such as network teams, service management, and customer support, to ensure alignment and readiness for the change. Effective communication is crucial to manage expectations and gather feedback.

Design and Development

Developing detailed plans for implementing the change. This may include designing new network architectures, service configurations, or process workflows.

Testing and Validation

Before full-scale implementation, testing the change in a controlled environment to validate its effectiveness and to identify potential issues.

Approval and Authorization

Obtaining necessary approvals from relevant authorities or management within the organization to proceed with the change.

Implementation and Deployment

Executing the change according to the plan, which may involve network configuration changes, software upgrades, or process alterations.

Monitoring and Adjustment

Continuously monitoring the change post-implementation to ensure it is delivering the desired results. Adjustments may be made based on performance data and feedback.

Documentation and Knowledge Sharing

Documenting the change process and outcomes for future reference and sharing knowledge and insights gained with relevant teams.

Review and Continuous Improvement

After implementation, reviewing the change to evaluate its impact, success, and any lessons learned. This step is crucial for continuous improvement in change management processes.

Order Management

Order management involves the handling and tracking of orders for network services or changes. This includes the processing, tracking, and fulfillment of orders, as well as the resolution of any issues that arise during the order lifecycle. It ensures efficient and effective order fulfillment, contributing to customer satisfaction and operational efficiency.

Order Management is a critical component of the customer-centric operations of network operators. It focuses on efficiently and accurately processing customer orders, from initial request to service activation and billing, ensuring a high level of customer satisfaction and operational excellence.

Activities Typically Involve

Order Capture and Validation

This involves receiving and recording customer orders for network services. Orders are validated for accuracy and completeness, ensuring that all necessary information is captured and that the requested services are available.

Order Decomposition and Processing

Breaking down complex orders into individual components or services. Each component is processed according to its specific requirements, which may involve interactions with different departments or systems.

Resource Allocation and Scheduling

Determining and allocating the necessary resources, such as network capacity, hardware, and manpower, to fulfill the order. This step also includes scheduling of tasks, particularly for services that require installation or activation.

Order Tracking and Status Updates

Providing continuous updates to customers regarding the status of their orders. This includes tracking the progress of order fulfillment and communicating any delays or issues.

Service Configuration and Activation

Configuring the necessary network elements and services as per the order requirements. This includes activating the service and ensuring it aligns with the customer’s specifications.

Quality Assurance and Testing

Ensuring that the services provided meet quality standards and function as expected. This may involve testing network connections, service features, and performance parameters.

Billing and Revenue Management

Integrating order management with billing systems to ensure accurate and timely billing. This includes calculating charges based on service usage and order specifications.

Order Fulfillment and Completion

Finalizing the order process by ensuring that all aspects of the order have been satisfactorily delivered and that the customer’s requirements have been met.

Customer Feedback and Post-Sales Support

Gathering feedback from customers on their order experience and providing ongoing support for any issues or inquiries related to the services delivered.

Change Management and Order Modification

Managing any changes or modifications to the order as requested by the customer, ensuring that these changes are reflected in the service delivery and billing.

Order Fulfillment

Order Fulfillment involves the execution and completion of orders for network services. This process is crucial for customer satisfaction as it ensures the timely and accurate delivery of services. It includes order processing, service activation, quality checks, and the resolution of any issues encountered during service delivery.

A critical process that spans from the point an order is received to the time the service is fully operational and the customer is billed. It involves coordination across various functions within the network operator to ensure that each order is fulfilled accurately, efficiently, and to the customer’s satisfaction.

Activities Typically Involve

Order Receipt and Confirmation

Receiving customer orders and confirming them. This initial step involves acknowledging the order and providing the customer with an estimated timeframe for fulfillment.

Service and Resource Inventory Check

Verifying the availability of required services and resources. This includes checking network capacity, hardware availability, and any other resources needed to fulfill the order.

Order Decomposition and Scheduling

Breaking down the order into manageable tasks or components and scheduling these for completion. This step ensures efficient resource allocation and timeline management.

Resource Allocation and Configuration

Allocating the necessary resources to fulfill the order. This includes configuring network elements, allocating bandwidth, and setting up any required hardware or software.

Service Provisioning and Activation

The actual process of provisioning the service as per the order. This could involve activating a new line, setting up broadband services, or configuring value-added services.

Quality Assurance and Testing

Conducting quality checks and testing to ensure that the service meets the required standards and operates correctly. This is crucial for customer satisfaction and reduces the likelihood of future service issues.

Delivery and Installation (If Applicable)

For orders that require physical delivery or installation, such as hardware or on-site services, this step involves managing the logistics and execution of delivery and installation at the customer's premises.

Order Completion and Confirmation

Marking the order as complete once all components have been successfully delivered and activated. Confirmation is then sent to the customer, indicating that the service is ready for use.

Billing Integration

Ensuring that the order fulfillment details are accurately reflected in the billing system for correct invoicing. This includes capturing any one-time charges, recurring fees, or special discounts applied.

Customer Support and Service Management

Providing ongoing support for the services delivered, addressing any post-installation queries or issues, and managing the service as part of the ongoing customer relationship.

Capacity Management

This function involves the management of thresholds, the establishment of operational standards, and the observation of trending patterns to ensure that the network has the adequate capacity to meet both current and anticipated future demands. Its importance cannot be overstated as it is crucial for maintaining optimal performance while simultaneously preventing network overloads or bottlenecks that could disrupt operations.

Capacity Management is essential for ensuring the network can efficiently meet both current and future service demands while maintaining high levels of customer satisfaction and operational efficiency.

Activities Typically Involve

Demand Analysis and Forecasting

This involves analyzing current resource usage and forecasting future demand based on trends, customer behavior, and market dynamics. It's essential for predicting when additional capacity will be needed.

Resource Inventory Management

Maintaining an up-to-date inventory of all network resources, including physical and virtual assets. This helps in understanding the current capacity and planning for expansions.

Capacity Planning

Based on demand forecasts, planning for capacity expansion or optimization. This includes determining when to acquire additional resources or when to reallocate existing ones.

Performance Monitoring

Continuously monitoring network and system performance to identify areas where capacity is either under-utilized or reaching its limits. This is crucial for proactive capacity management.

Bottleneck Identification and Resolution

Identifying and resolving capacity bottlenecks in the network. This ensures that there are no weak links that could affect service quality or lead to outages.

New Technology Integration

Assessing and integrating new technologies that can enhance capacity or improve efficiency. This includes staying abreast of advancements in network technologies that can offer better capacity management solutions.

Cost Management

Balancing the need for additional capacity with financial constraints. This involves cost-benefit analyses to ensure that capacity expansions are economically viable.

Quality and SLA Compliance

Ensuring that capacity management efforts align with quality standards and Service Level Agreements (SLAs) commitments. Adequate capacity is essential to meet promised service levels.

Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning

Including capacity considerations in disaster recovery and business continuity planning. This ensures that in the event of an unforeseen disaster, there is enough capacity to maintain critical services.

Reporting and Analysis

Regularly reporting on capacity status and performance. This data is used for analysis and decision-making, feeding back into the capacity planning process.

SLA Management

This entails the management and continuous monitoring of Service Level Agreements. It includes aspects such as Time to Repair (TTR), Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Reporting, and KPI Management. This function ensures that all network services consistently meet the agreed-upon performance and quality standards, thus guaranteeing the optimal function and performance of the network services.

SLA Management ensures that the network delivers on its service commitments, thereby fostering strong customer relationships and enhancing service reliability and trustworthiness. This process is integral to service assurance and overall customer experience management.

Activities Typically Involve

SLA Development and Negotiation

Crafting SLAs that are aligned with both the network's capabilities and the customer's expectations. This includes negotiating terms that are agreeable to both parties, clearly defining service levels, and establishing performance metrics.

Service Level Objectives (SLO) Definition

Specifying precise service level objectives within the SLA. These objectives typically include metrics like availability, latency, error rates, and time to repair.

Performance Monitoring

Continuously monitoring service performance against the agreed SLOs. This involves using tools and systems to track and measure performance metrics in real time.

Reporting and Communication

Regularly reporting on service performance to customers and internal stakeholders. Communication is key in maintaining transparency about service levels and any issues that arise.

Compliance Assessment

Evaluating whether the services provided meet the agreed-upon standards in the SLA. This includes analyzing performance data to assess compliance.

Issue Identification and Resolution

Identifying when service levels are not being met and resolving the underlying issues. Prompt action and effective problem-solving are crucial to maintain trust and service quality.

SLA Review and Adjustment

Periodically reviewing SLAs to ensure they remain relevant and aligned with customer needs and technological advancements. This may involve adjusting SLOs or other terms in response to changing circumstances.

Penalty Management and Service Credits

Managing penalties or service credits as stipulated in the SLA in the event of non-compliance. This is an essential part of maintaining credibility and enforcing the SLA.

Customer Feedback and Improvement

Gathering customer feedback on service performance and using this input to drive continuous improvement in service delivery.

Risk Management

Identifying and managing risks that could impact SLA compliance, including capacity issues, technological failures, and external factors.

Problem Management

This function involves the management of repeat incidents and the identification of trends that might indicate underlying problems. The primary objective here is to identify and rectify the root causes of incidents to prevent their recurrence in the future, ultimately enhancing the overall network performance.

Problem Management involves identifying, analyzing, and resolving the root causes of incidents to prevent their recurrence. It aims to improve service quality and efficiency by minimizing the impact of problems on business operations.

Activities Typically Involve

Detecting Problems

Logging and Categorizing

Investigating and Diagnosing the Cause

Implementing Solutions or Workarounds

Problem Management can be proactive, aiming to identify and address issues before incidents occur, or reactive, responding to incidents after they happen. This process is essential for maintaining high service standards and ensuring customer satisfaction.